Module A


Performance on standardized tests or examinations that measure knowledge or competence acquired in a specific area. The term is sometimes used as an indication of education quality within an education system or when comparing a group of schools or students.


The act of attending a class in school. This can apply to students or teachers. Class attendance sheets are used to record student attendance.

Capital expenditure on education

Expenditure for assets that last longer than one year. It includes expenditure for construction, renovation and major repairs of buildings and the purchase of durable equipment or vehicles.


An official survey involving the whole population within a defined system. For example, a school census involves all the schools within the education system.


Children working at age below the official age to start work that deprives them of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to their physical and mental development.


A group of pupils or students who receive the same instruction in common. Students from different grades may be present in the same class, as occurs in one-teacher or two-teacher schools, or in a multi-grade class. Conversely, a school may have a number of classes for the same grade.

Closed-ended question

A form of question which can normally be answered using a simple “yes” or “no” or a selection from multiple choices. (Cf. Open-ended question)


Activities in or outside of school that are organized to accompany and reinforce the learning in class.


Proportion of pupils in the final grade who successfully completed his/her studies at the school.

Current expenditure on education

Expenditure for goods and services consumed within the current year and which will be renewed if needed in the following year. It includes expenditure on: personnel salaries, pensions and benefits; contracted or purchased services; other sources including books and teaching materials; welfare services; and other current expenditure, such as subsidies to students and households, furniture and minor equipment, minor repairs, fuel, telecommunications, travel, insurance and rents.


Facts, statistics, or items of information from which conclusions may be drawn. In this module, data refers to the educational data mainly recorded in school and within the education management information system.


A collection of related information organized for storage usually in computer which enables easy search, retrieval, processing, analysis and production of information.

Data collection

Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and obtaining/gathering specific information regarding a phenomenon or an activity in order to keep the collected information on record, to use it to make decisions about important issues, and to pass on information to others.

Data collection instrument

Data collection or measuring tools such as questionnaires and tests including their instruction manuals or guides.

Data quality

Data quality refers to the degree of relevance, reliability and accuracy exhibited by the data in relation to the portrayal of the actual phenomena.

Data verification

A process of cross-checking the completeness and accuracy of the data or information provided by the respondents. This process is important for controlling the quality of data in completed questionnaires.


Withdrawn from a center or place of concentration; especially having power or function dispersed from a central to local authorities. In this module, it refers to decentralized levels of the education administration such as at the provincial, district or local levels, and to decentralized processes of planning and management of education.


Normally it means to spread broadly as though sowing seeds. In this module, it means to distribute and spread education information within the education system and to related stakeholders.


Pupil or student who leaves school definitively without completing a given school year.

Dropout rate by grade

Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year.

Early childhood care and education (ECCE)

Programmes that, in addition to providing children with care, offer a structured and purposeful set of learning activities either in a formal institution (pre-primary or ISCED 0) or as part of a non-formal child development programme. ECCE programmes are normally designed for children from age 3 and include organized learning activities that constitute, on average, the equivalent of at least 2 hours per day and 100 days per year.

Education Management and InformationSystem (EMIS)

A system that collects, processes, stores, analyses and disseminates data and information in an organized manner about the functioning of the education system, aiming at informing the stakeholders and to support evidence-based policy-making, planning, management and monitoring of education.


Number of pupils or students registered to attend a school or an educational programme.


Age at which pupils or students would enter a given level of education or programme.

Extra-curricular activity

Activities organized by a school for students that are not part of the regular curriculum.


Stage of instruction within a level of education which spans one complete school year, the completion of which enables enrolment into the next higher grade or level of education.


Rewards offered to incite to action or greater effort. In education, incentives such as school lunch, school uniform, free textbooks, etc. are offered to motivate students to attend school regularly and to improve their academic performance.


A piece of data or information which indicates a state or changes. In these modules, it refers to data and information with statistical values that give an indication of the situation with regard to education.


Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus.

In-service teacher training

In-service training is further education for currently employed teachers to help them develop or up- grade their knowledge and skills.


New entrants to the first grade of primary education.


Pupils who moved to a specific school from another school during a specific school year.

Learning needs

Basic learning needs refer to the essential tools for learning (e.g. literacy, oral expression, numeracy, problem-solving) as well as basic learning content (e.g. knowledge, skills, values and attitudes) that individuals should acquire in order to survive, develop personal capacities, live and work in dignity, participate in development, improve quality of life, make informed decisions and continue the learning process. The scope of basic learning needs, and how they should be met, varies by country and culture, and changes over time. The other needs refer to the needs from pupils besides the learning needs. It can be the needs for financial support, the needs for law assistance, the needs for under- standing, etc. The same as the basic learning needs, the other needs also depend on the social, economical, political and cultural context of each region/country.


Generally, it refers to being separated from the rest of the society, forced to occupy the fringes and edges and not to be at the centre of things. In education, marginalized children are often those who do not attend school and those who have difficulties learning at school.

Missing data

Questions and data queries which are not answered, without any footnote nor explanation.


The act to observe, record, keep track of the state of a system. In this module, it means to keep track of changes in the education system by collecting data and analyzing education indicators.

Monitoring EFA

Collecting data and analysing indicators to check progress in achieving the six EFA goals, and to identify shortfalls and issues.

Mother tongue

A language of one’s mother. It is used to refer to the language that a person learned at home (usually from the parents).

Multi-grade class

Pupils of more than one grade are taught in the same class.

National language

Language spoken by a large part of the population of a country, which may or may not be designated an office language (i.e., a language designated by law to be employed in the public domain).

Net Enrolment Ratio (NER)

Number of pupils in the official age-group to attend a given level of education who are enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that same age-group.

New entrants

Pupils entering a given level of education for the first time; this data can be derived by subtracting from enrolment in the first grade of the level, the number of repeaters.

New entrants to the first grade of primary education with ECCE experience

Number of new entrants to the first grade of primary school who have attended the equivalent of at least 200 hours of organized ECCE programmes, expressed as a percentage of the total number of new entrants to the first grade.

Open-ended question

Open-ended questions allow the respondent to formulate their own answer in their own way, where-as closed questions make the respondent choose between pre-defined answers. (Cf. Close-ended question)


End result of learning in school. This refers mainly to the graduates who received a degree, diploma, certificate or other forms of recognition on completing an educational programme or course of study in a university, college, or school, or students who have successfully completed a level or grade of education.

Out-of-school children

Children in the official primary school age range who are not enrolled to attend any school or organized educational programme.

Over-age enrolment

Pupils or students enrolled at a given level or grade of education who are of the age above the cor- responding official school age.

Parent-teacher association

An organization run jointly by teachers and the parents of students at a school which tries to help and support the school, especially by arranging for and organizing activities that raise funds and support for the school.

Pre-service teacher training

Training of teachers prior to their employment as a teacher.

Primary education

Programmes normally designed on a unit or project basis to give pupils a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics, and an elementary understanding of subjects such as history, geography, natural sciences, social sciences, art and music. Religious instruction may also be featured. These subjects serve to develop pupils’ ability to obtain and use information they need about their home, community or country.

Pupil/teacher ratio

Number of pupils for each teacher in a school, a grade or a class.

Qualified teachers

Teachers who fulfill established norms in terms of minimum academic qualification (e.g. highest level of education completed) and/or teacher training received.

Quality of education

The quality of education is determined by the quality of the: (a) learning environment, (b) teaching-learning process, and (c) learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills, attitude and abilities imparted.

Record management

A practice of maintaining the records of an organization from the time they are created up to their eventual disposal. This may include updating, classifying, storing, securing, and destruction (or in some cases, archival preservation) of records.


Pupils enrolled in the same grade of education as in the previous year.

Percentage of repeaters

Number of pupils enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, expressed as a percentage of the total enrolment in that grade or level.

Repetition rate by grade

Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who attend the same grade in the following school year.


This term refers to students continuing their studies in school, without dropping out.

School-age population

Population of the official age-group to attend a given level of education as indicated by a theoretical entrance age and duration.

School census

An official survey covering and involving all schools within the education system.

School-entrance age population

Population at the official age to enter Grade 1 of primary school.

Secondary education

Programme comprising lower secondary and upper secondary education. Lower secondary education (ISCED 2) is generally designed to continue the basic programmes of the primary level but the teaching is typically more subject focused, requiring more specialized teachers for each subject area. The end of this level often coincides with the end of compulsory education. In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), the final stage of secondary education in most countries, instruction is often organized even more along subject lines and teachers typically need a higher or more subject-specific qualification than at ISCED level 2.

School Records

School records are documented information evidences of what a school does.

School Records Management System(SRMS)

A School Records Management System (SRMS) systematically record, store and update data and information in the form of school records at school so as to enable easy search, retrieval, analysis and use of the stored data and information.


Persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students. Education personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. head- masters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity are excluded.

Teacher’s salaries

Teachers’ salaries are expressed as statutory salaries, which are scheduled salaries according to official pay scales. Reported salaries are defined as the sum of wages (total sum of money paid by the employer for the labour supplied) minus the employer’s contribution to social security and pension funding (according to existing salary scales). Bonuses that constitute a regular part of the salary (such as holidays or regional bonuses) are included in the figures. Additional bonuses (for example, remuneration for teachers in remote areas, for participating in school improvement projects or special activities, or for exceptional performance) are excluded from the reported gross salaries.

Teaching aid

The materials or tools used by the teacher to support teaching/learning process at school.

Under-age enrolment

Pupils or students enrolled at a given level or grade of education who are of the age below the cor- responding official school age.


There is no exact definition of “unreached”. Generally, it refers to the people who are not attend school or education due to various socioeconomic- cultural-political factors, or who are under difficult circumstances due to natural or man-made disasters. More importantly, who can be considered as the “unreached” should depend on each region/country’s context.

Untrained teacher

Teachers who have not received the minimum organized teacher-training (pre-service and/or in-ser- vice) required for teaching at the relevant level and grade in the given country

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