Module A1: School records management

3. What does a school records management system records?

Based on a review of school management practices in many countries, school records should give priority to recording data and information about the following aspects of school:

  1. Students – personal and family characteristics, previous educational experience, current grade, attendance, academic performance, behaviour, achievements/faults, outcomes (e.g. promotion to next grade, repeating grade, drop-out, transfer, or graduation).
  2. Teachers – personal characteristics, past education, qualification, pre-service and in-service teacher training received, years of service, employment status, subject specialization, class/subject taught, teaching load, special skills, attendance, performance, behaviour, achievements/faults.
  3. Finance – school budget and income by source, expenditure by type, financial balance.
  4. Physical facilities – quantity and conditions of school buildings, classrooms, furniture, equipment and other physical facilities; maintenance, repairs and new constructions; rate of utilisation.
  5. Teaching/learning materials – quantity and conditions by type of material, new acquisitions, rate of utilisation.
  6. Learning achievement and outcomes – results of tests, examinations and assessments (regarding academic, behavioural and other student attributes).
  7. Extra-curricular and co-curricular activities – type of activities, schedules, staff involved, number of participants, results, impact.
  8. School and community interactions – school management board meetings, parent-teacher association activities, school-and-community activities.

Based on good practices in school management and the need to monitor progress toward EFA goals, the following records are essential for SRMS in schools:

  1.  Student record card
  2. Class attendance sheet
  3. Textbook record sheet
  4.  Student performance summary
  5. Teacher record
  6. Teacher performance evaluation report
  7. Inventory of physical facilities
  8. Inventory of furniture/equipment
  9. Inventory of teaching/learning resource materials
  10. Financial summary

These ten essential school records, when systematically kept, updated and used by all schools, will not only strengthen information management within the education system, but also enable each school, district, province and central education authorities to effectively monitor many aspects of EFA (see Module A3).

For school managers, administrative staff and teachers to better plan, organize, conduct, monitor and evaluate their daily school activities, additional school records may be created and usedsuch as detailed financial ledgers, records of presence of school staff, records of use of school facilities and teaching-learning materials, school meals and scholarships, etc. Separate school records can be created and updated about extra-curricular and co-curricular activities organized, village education committee meetings, school management board meetings, parent-teacher association activities, other school-and-community activities, after each such activity has taken place. Those additional records that are found to be most useful can become regular components of the school’s SRMS.

Activity 2:

Gather existing school records from your school or schools in your area, district, province, or country. Review and compare them with the eight key aspects of a school’s operations and the ten essential school records described in this section. Then, answer the following questions:

For school managers and staff:

  1. Which of the above eight aspects of school operations do you think should be given priority in a SRMS?
  2. How closely do the records kept in your school correspond to these eight aspects and the ten essential school records?
  3. What other aspects of a school’s operations require systematic school records? Why?
  4. What other additional record(s) should be kept in your school? Why?
  5. How would you go about introducing these additional records?

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. Which of the above eight aspects of a school’s operations do you think should be given priority in a SRMS? What other aspects of a school’s operations require systematic school records? Why?
  2. How do existing records in the schools in your area correspond to the eight aspects of school operations and the ten essential school records? Please describe.
  3. What other additional record(s) should be kept in schools in your area? Why?
  4. Do you think all schools in your area should keep a common, standard set of school records? If yes, which records do you think should be standard? Why do you think all schools should keep a standard set of records?

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. In the schools in your country or province, which of the eight aspects of a school’s operations should be given priority in a SRMS?
  2. What other aspects of a school’s operations require systematic school records? Why?
  3. To your knowledge, how do existing records in the schools in your country or province correspond to the eight aspects of school operations and the ten essential records?
  4. What other additional record(s) do you think schools in your country or province might need? Why?
  5. Do you think all schools in your area should keep a common, standard set of school records? If yes, which records do you think should be standard? Why do you think all schools should keep a standard set of records?
  6. What can be done to ensure that all the schools in your country or province keep a standardized set of school records?

3.1 Student record card

3.1.1 Purpose

Student record cards are used to record and manage information about individual students.

The school creates a new student record card for each student when they enroll, to record infor- mation about the student’s personal and family details. during the student’s attendance at school, additional information about academic performance, progression, and changes in the personal and family details are included. Teachers and school administrators use student record cards to find detailed information about individual students, and to generate summary lists of students, data and indicators on enrolment, performance, grade repetition, drop out, sex ratios, age distribution, etc. The school uses this information to track and manage the students, to help teachers manage their classes, and to identify students who need counseling or extra teaching.

3.1.2 Content and presentation

Student record cards store information on the personal and family characteristics of each student when he/she enrolls in a school (see example 1). it reserves fields for recording during the school year, addi- tional information about individual student’s academic performance, examination results, successes and failures, participation in school activities, behaviour, and observations by class teachers and head- teachers. Other information may also be included, such as whether the student receives a school meal, scholarship, free uniform, transportation, boarding and/or other incentives to attend school. in a SRMS, student record cards can be filed as record cards, on printed forms, as electronic records in a database, or using a combination of paper-based and electronic media. The student record card in example 1 may be adjusted to suit national and local requirements and information needs.

3.1.3 Creation and use

The school staff member responsible for enrolment creates a record card for each student when he/ she enrolls to attend the school. each record is used for one school year and continues to be updated during the school year when there are changes in the student’s personal and family data. information is added at the end of each school term about the student’s academic and behavioral performance as well as his/her progression in school. if the student continues his/her study at the same school in the following school year, a new student record will be created and the previous year’s record will be archived. When a student transfers to another school, a copy of his/her records may be provided to the new school for reference. The same applies to new students transferred into this school. For stu- dents who dropped out of school, the item ‘dropped out’ under ‘Result’ may be circled, together with the date of drop out so that action may be taken to bring the student back into school.

3.1.4 Storage, access and retention

Most schools keep their student record cards in the school manager’s office in paper and/or electronic form. Only school management staff and the teachers responsible for teaching specific students can have access to their record. if feasible, computerized storage of student records can facilitate sorting, searching, retrieving and updating them. each school should have a policy that specifies the period of time student records are kept. ideally, student records are actively updated during one school year, and then archived and kept for a number of years so the school can track their performance over time and observe the progress of students after they leave school. Before student record cards are archived or destroyed, key information should be extracted to create summary lists or entered into a computerized database if that has not been done already.

Activity 3

Compare the student record card in Example 1 with existing student records that are used in your school, area, district, province, or country , and answer the following questions.

For school managers and staff:

  1. howusefularestudentrecordcardsformanagingstudentsinyourschool?
  2. Arethequestionsandtermsinexample1easytounderstand?isthedesignclearandistheform easy to fill out? Please circle any questions, terms and aspects of design you think are unclear orinappropriate, discuss with relevant school staff, and summarize the findings.
  3. doyoufindtheinstructionsprovidedinthissectionclearandhelpful?Anysuggestedimprovements?
  4. Whichdataitemsarerelevanttoyourschool?Whichotherdataitemsarenotrelevant?Why?
  5. Whatotherdataitemsshouldbeaddedtothestudentrecord?Why?
  6. howshouldthestudentrecordcardlook,takingintoconsiderationyoursuggestions
    in questions 2-5 above?
    (Activity: Sketch your preferred new student record card and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. howusefularestudentrecordcardsformanagingstudentsintheschoolsinyourarea?
  2. Arethequestionsandtermsinexample1easytounderstand?isthedesignclearandistheform easy to fill out? Please circle any questions, terms and aspects of design you think are unclear or inap- propriate, discuss with relevant school staff, and summarize the findings.
  3. doyoufindtheinstructionsprovidedinthissectionclearandhelpful?Anysuggestedimprovements?
  4. Whichdataitemsarerelevanttotheschoolsinyourarea?Whichdataitemsarenotrelevant?Why?
  5. Whatotherdataitemsshouldbeaddedtothestudentrecord?Why?
  6. howshouldthestudentrecordcardlook,takingintoconsiderationyoursuggestionsin questions 2-5 above?
    (Activity: Sketch your preferred new student record card and discuss with your colleagues and school managers in order to refine it.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. inwhatwaycanthestudentrecordcardinexample1beusefulfortheoverallmanagementof students in schools in your country or province? (discuss this with your colleagues and some school managers, and summarize their suggestions).
  2. Arethequestionsandtermsinexample1easytounderstand?isthedesignclearandistheformeasy to fill out? Please circle any questions, terms and aspects of design on the form you think are unclear or inappropriate, discuss with some relevant school staff, and summarize the findings.
  3. do you find the instruction provided in this section clear and helpful? Any suggested improvements?
  4. Whichdataitems,whensummarizedintotables,canbeofparticularinteresttoeducation administrators at central or provincial level?
  5. Whatotherdataitemsshouldbeaddedtothestudentrecord?Why?
  6. ifyouweretostandardizethestudentrecordcardforallschools,howwouldyougoaboutdoingit?

3.2 class attendance sheet

3.2.1 Purpose

Teachers use class attendance sheets to record the presence and absence of individual stu- dents. Schools can use these attendance sheets to calculate attendance rates by grade, class, sex, age in order to monitor the regularity and patterns of students attending class, and to generate lists of students with frequent absence from class, so that actions can be taken by the school and teach- ers to enquire into the causes of absence and to find ways to assist these student to regularly attend class. example 2 shows a simple monthly class attendance sheet.

3.2.2 Content and presentation

A monthly class attendance sheet (see example 2) contains essentially a list of names of students enrolled in a specific class, together with corresponding cells for each day of the month in which the class teacher records the presence and absence of individual students using specific symbols like those given below the attendance sheet in example 2. At the end of each month, summary attendance indicators can be calculated such as attendance rate by day and the number of days absent for each student. By including additional columns with individual student information such as gender, age and other characteristics especially the duration of travel from home to school, the teacher and school management can monitor the pattern of student attendance and identify causes for absenteeism. Attendance sheets are usually in paper form but some schools or classes may be equipped to electronically record student attendance.

3.2.3 Creation and use

The school management or class teachers use individual student records to create monthly atten- dance sheets for each class. Teachers use these sheets to record the presence or absence of each student on each school day. School managers are responsible for defining the methods and the rules for recording class attendance (see symbols to be used at the bottom of example 2), and for ensuring all the teachers consistently follow them. class teachers and school managers use the com- pleted class attendance sheets to count the number of days each student was absent and to calcu- late average student attendance rates. This helps the school to identify, analyse and solve problems of student absenteeism by grade, class, sex, age and other characteristics.

3.2.4 Storage, access and retention

completed monthly class attendance sheets are kept as records at the school management office, where they are used to: (a) track student presence in classes; (b) identify frequently absent students; (c) calculate average student attendance rates; and (d) produce analytical tables of student absen- teeism according to specific student characteristics. School records management policy may require monthly attendance records to be kept until the beginning of the next school year, before destruc- tion. The calculated average student attendance rates for each class and grade may be maintained for use in comparing student attendance patterns from one school year to the next.

Activity 4

Carefully examine and compare the class attendance sheet in Example 2 with existing attendance sheet(s) and records used in your school, district, province or country, and answer the following questions:

For school managers and staff:

  1. how have attendance sheets been used in your school to monitor students’ attendance? What problems or issues did class teachers encounter while updating the attendance sheets? What were the lessons learnt?
  2. Apart from the class attendance sheet, what other methods and tools has your school used to monitor student attendance? What were the results? List some advantages and disadvantages of the methods your school used.
  3. do you find the instructions provided in this section clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should a class attendance sheet look, taking into consideration your comments above?(Activity: Sketch a class attendance sheet and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. how have attendance sheets been used in the schools in your area to monitor students’ attendance? What problems or issues did class teachers encounter while updating the attendance sheets? What were the lessons learnt?
  2. Apart from the class attendance sheet, what other methods and tools have the schools in your area used to monitor student attendance? What were the results? List some advantages and disadvantages of the methods your school used.
  3. do you find the instructions provided in this section clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should a class attendance sheet look, taking into consideration your comments above?(Activity: Sketch a class attendance sheet and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. how have attendance sheets been used in the schools in your country or province to monitor students’ attendance? What problems or issues did class teachers encounter while updating the attendance sheets? What were the lessons learnt?
  2. Apart from the class attendance sheet, what other methods and tools have the schools in your country or province used to monitor student attendance? What were the results? List some advantages and disadvantages of the methods your school used.
  3. do you find the instructions provided in this section clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should a class attendance sheet look, taking into consideration your comments above?(Activity: Sketch a class attendance sheet and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)
  5. if you were to standardize and implement class attendance sheets in all schools, how would you go about doing it?

3.3 Textbook record sheet

3.3.1 Purpose

every student should possess his own copy of basic learning materials such as textbooks by subject.

Textbook record sheets are created and used to monitor whether all the students in a class have all the textbooks required for all subjects. Their main purpose is to record each student’s possession of the required textbooks, and to identify students who do not have certain textbooks so that appropriate action can be taken to either directly obtain and distribute to them the missing textbook(s), or to contact the parents of the student in order to assist them in acquiring the text- books.

3.3.2 Content and presentation

A textbook record sheet (see example 3) lists out the names of all the students in each class in a school, and records the number of copies each student possesses of textbooks required for each subject. A ‘0’ is entered under a subject if the student does not have his/her own copy of the corre- sponding textbook. The list of subjects in the heading of the record sheet may be adjusted accord- ing to the kind of subjects offered in each grade, class and school.

3.3.3 Creation and use

The school creates textbook record sheets at the beginning of each school term. Teachers use these sheets to verify and record, in each class, whether every student has the textbook(s) required for that grade and each subject. Students who have ‘0’ textbooks for any subject, or those who have less than the required quantity of textbooks, can be identified so that the class teacher and the school management can find out about the reasons and help these students to acquire the missing textbook(s). The school may use the records to calculate and compare the percentages of students without textbooks by class and by grade, and to analyse the patterns according to the characteristics of students and causes, so as to take appropriate actions. Textbook record sheets should be updated during each school term to monitor any loss or damage to textbooks. When some textbooks for a subject change from one school term to another, either update the existing textbook record sheet or create a new sheet for the new school term.

3.3.4 Storage, access and retention

completed textbook record sheets are kept at the school management office, classified by class, grade or subject. Textbook record sheets may be kept for two or three years according to each school’s SRMS policy, for use in monitoring the patterns of missing textbooks and actions taken to solve the problem over time. They can be accessed and used only by teachers who teach the corresponding class or group of students, and the school management.

note: Similar record sheets may be created to monitor other learning materials, equipment and services that students should receive from the school, including school lunch, free uniforms, stationary supplies, scholarships or other incentives to attend school.

Activity 5

Carefully examine the textbook record sheet in Example 3, discuss with teachers and school staff in your school, district, province or country about their practices and problems in monitoring textbooks, and then answer the following questions:

For school managers and staff:

  1. how do you and teachers of your school monitor the availability and supply of textbooks? What kind of records does your school keep to monitor textbooks?
  2. how closely do the textbook record sheet in example 3 and monitoring practices described in this section correspond to the needs and practices in your school? Which aspects are relevant, and which are irrelevant? Why?
  3. Are the above instructions for the textbook record sheet clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. What other information about textbooks should be collected by schools?(Activity: Sketch a textbook record sheet, discuss it with your teachers, and refine it according to theirsuggestions.)
  5. how would you go about monitoring textbooks in your school in the future?

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. how do schools in your area monitor the supply and distribution of textbooks? discuss with some school managers and teachers in your area about the need for and practices in monitoring textbooks, and summarize their experiences and views.
  2. how closely do the textbook record sheet in example 3 and the monitoring practices described in this section correspond to the needs and practices in the schools in your area? Which aspects are relevant, and which are irrelevant? Why?
  3. Are the above instructions for the textbook record sheet clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. What other information about textbooks should be collected by schools in your area?(Activity: Sketch a textbook record sheet, discuss it with experienced school managers and teachers in your area, and refine it according to their suggestions.)
  5. how would you go about monitoring textbooks in the schools in your area in the future?

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. To your knowledge, what kinds of records have the schools in your country or province used to mon- itor textbooks? discuss with some district education officers, school managers and teachers about the need for and practices in monitoring textbooks, and summarize their experiences and views.
  2. how closely do the textbook record sheet in example 3 and the monitoring practices described in this section correspond to the needs of schools in your country or province? Which aspects are relevant, and which are irrelevant? Why?
  3. Are the above instructions for the textbook record sheet clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. What other information about the distribution of textbooks should be collected by schools in your country or province?
    (Activity: Sketch a textbook record sheet, discuss it with experienced school managers and teachers in your country or province, and refine it according to their suggestions.)
  5. how would you go about monitoring textbooks in the schools in your country or province in the future? Will you standardize this record and the monitoring practices? if yes, how?

3.4 Student performance summary

3.4.1 Purpose

Student performance summaries monitor the academic and behavioural performance of a class of students (See example 4). They are useful for recording, comparing and analysing the scores obtained by individual students in examinations and assessments on various subjects during a school term or school year, and to identify the top, average and low performers in a class. Teachers and school management use these results to take action to improve teaching-learning processes, examination questions or assessment tasks, and to specially help the low performers. Student performance sum- maries for consecutive school terms or school years may be used to monitor how the performance of individual students changed over time. Once an individual student’s performance results are vali- dated, they may be added to the corresponding student record cards (see example 1).

3.4.2 Content and presentation

The student performance summary records the scores obtained by individual students in a class on different subject examinations or assessments (See example 4). A student performance sum- mary sheet lists the names of all the students in a class and the subjects which have been taught or assessed during a school term or school year. it records the scores obtained by each student in examination or assessment on these subjects. depending on schools, this summary may also include the observations teachers make about each student’s behaviour. if needed, information about indi- vidual student characteristics such as gender, age and other relevant attributes may also be added to the student performance summary sheet so that the class teachers and school managers can analyse student performance patterns against various individual characteristics. Then they can iden- tify appropriate action to assist those students with learning difficulties.

3.4.3 Creation and use

When the scores from tests, examinations and assessments are available at the end of each school term and school year, the teacher who is in charge of each class creates a student performance sum- mary by recording each student’s score by subject. Both class and subject teachers use such stu- dent performance summaries to monitor and compare their student’s performance, and to identify students with learning problems who need remedial support. School managers can also use these summaries to monitor individual teachers’ use of examinations and assessments as part of teaching- learning processes. Behavioural performance can be recorded after the first behavioural assessment 1-3 months after the beginning of the school year. it is continuously updated and used as reference by all the teachers who teach this group of students. The school’s managers also use the behavioural per- formance summary to record and monitor the students’ behavioural patterns and incidences, awards and/or punishments given, and to arrange for further remedial or disciplinary measures if needed.

3.4.4 Storage, access and retention

completed student performance summaries are kept at the school management office. They can be accessed and used only by those teachers who teach the corresponding group of students, and the school management. The student performance summaries should be maintained at the school for a period of five or more years, so that they can be used for comparing over time the performance of individual students or of different groups of students who study the same subject(s).

Activity 6

Carefully examine the student performance summary in Example 4 and compare it with existing student performance summaries and records used in your school, district, province or country. Then, answer the following questions:For school managers and staff:

  1. What kinds of records are used in your school to monitor student performance? discuss with the class/subject teachers about the advantages and disadvantages of each type of record, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for how to improve the system in the future.
  2. how closely does the student performance summary sheet in example 4 correspond to the needs and practices in your school? Which aspects are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What else should be included in such a record?
  3. Are the instructions for student performance summary in this section clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. How should a student performance summary look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch a student performance summary and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. What kinds of records are used in the schools in your area to monitor student performance? discuss with some class/subject teachers and school managers about the advantages and disadvantages of these records, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improving student performance records in the future.
  2. how closely does the student performance summary in example 4 correspond to the needs and practices of the schools in your area? Which aspects are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What else should be included in such a record?
  3. Are the instructions for student performance summary in this section clear and helpful?
    What can be improved especially when used in your work to supervise and support the schools?
  4. how should a student performance summary look, taking into consideration your comments above?(Activity: Sketch a student performance summary and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. To your knowledge, what kinds of records are used in the schools in your country or province to monitor student performance? Obtain some samples of these and discuss with class/subject teachers and school managers about the advantages and disadvantages of each type. List the lessons learnt and suggestions for improving student performance summaries in future.
  2. how closely does the student performance summary in example 4 correspond to the needs and practices of the schools in your province or country? Which aspects are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What else should be included in such a record?
  3. Are the instructions for student performance summary in this section clear and helpful? What can be improved especially for use by district education officers, inspectors and school managers and teachers?
  4. How should a student performance summary look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch a student performance summary and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)
  5. if you were to standardize and implement student performance summaries in all schools, how would you go about doing it?

3.5 Teacher record card

3.5.1 Purpose

A teacher record is created for each teacher who teaches in a school. it records each teacher’s per- sonal, educational and employment characteristics and information about the teacher’s role and responsibilities at the school (see example 5). The school manager can use the teacher record cards to look up and compare the educational background, experience, competencies and aptitude of teachers to determine their assignments, duties, responsibilities and workload. Through updates based on periodic evaluation of teacher performance (see Section 3.6), school management can improve career development opportunities for teachers and give them more suitable work assignments. When individual teacher records are tallied and summarized, the resulting lists and tables can give an overall picture of the composition of the teaching staff by sex, age, qualification, work assignment and performance, thereby showing the availability, gaps, strengths and weaknesses of the teaching staff in the school. Some of these data can also be used for reporting during annual school censuses (see Module A2).

3.5.2 Content and presentation

Teacher records are individual records that include information about the personal and academic details of teachers in a school, and particulars about their previous work experiences and current responsibilities (see example 5). Like student records, teacher records can incorporate key results from periodic evaluations of each teacher’s performance. information about pre-service and in-ser- vice teacher training each teacher has received, as well as plans for future career development may also be included in the teacher’s record.

3.5.3 Creation and use

Teacher records are created when a new teacher joins a school. The school manager is responsible for ensuring that the record is complete and the information is correct and accurate, before valida- tion for the teacher record to be maintained at the school and the information entered into the computerized teacher database. The same procedure applies when information updates and new performance evaluation results are added to the record. Teacher records are used by school manag- ers and education administrators at district/provincial level and/or the Ministry of education to man- age the assignments, working conditions, transfers, promotions, in-service training, discipline and career development opportunities for teachers.

3.5.4 Storage, access and retention

Teacher records are confidentially kept in the school management office, and continuously updated when new information or performance evaluation results become available. if possible, all or part of the information in teacher records can also be entered into computerized storage in a teacher database either at the school or at the Ministry of education. Some countries have a central teacher service register that can be used to facilitate sorting, searching, retrieval, processing and use of the information about teachers. When a teacher retires, resigns, dies or transfers out of the school, the teacher’s record can be archived, but should not be destroyed.

Activity 7

Carefully examine the teacher record in Example 5 and compare it with existing teacher records used in your school, district, province, or country. Then, answer the following questions:

For school managers and staff:

1. Are teacher records useful for managing teachers in your school? Why?

  1. Are the questions and terms easy to understand? is the design clear and easy to fill out? indicate by circling the questions, terms and parts of design that might be problematic, for discussion.
  2. Are the above instructions for the teacher record clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  3. Which data items are relevant to your school? Which other data items are not relevant? Why?
  4. What other data items should be added to the teacher record? Why?
  5. how should the teacher record look, taking into consideration your suggestions above?(Activity: Sketch a teacher record and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. Are teacher records useful for managing teachers in the schools in your area? Why?
  2. Are the questions and terms easy to understand? is the design clear and easy to fill out? indicate by circling the questions, terms and parts of design that might be problematic, for discussion with school managers in your area.
  3. Are the above instructions for the teacher record clear and helpful especially for your work in supervising and supporting the schools in your area? What can be improved?
  4. Which data items are relevant to the schools in your area? Which other data items are not relevant? Why?
  5. What other data items should be added to the teacher record? Why?
  6. how should the teacher record look, taking into consideration your suggestions above?(Activity: Sketch a teacher record and discuss with your colleagues and school managers in order to refine it.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. in what way can this teacher record be useful for the overall management of teachers in the schools in your province or country?
    (Activity: Talk to your colleagues and some school managers, and summarise their observations.)
  2. do you find the questions and terms easy to understand? is the design clear and easy to fill out? indicate by circling the questions, terms and parts of design that might be problematic,
    for discussion with your colleagues and some school managers.
  3. do you find the above instructions for the teacher record clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. Which data items in the teacher record in example 5, when summarised, can be of particular interest to education administrators at the provincial or central level?
  5. What other additional data items should be added to the teacher record? Why?(Activity: Sketch a teacher record and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)
  6. if you were to standardize the teacher record for all schools, how would you go about doing it?

3.6 Teacher performance evaluation report

3.6.1 Purpose

To improve teaching and learning at school, teacher performance evaluation can be organized on a periodic basis for each teacher, and the results can be summarised in individual reports (see example 6). Such reports can be used by the school management and higher levels of the education administration to improve the assignment of teachers and to determine continuation of employment, transfer, promotion, demotion, further training, award or disciplinary measures. For the purpose of school improvement, it is important that such reports are systematically produced and kept at the school for reference in the management of teachers. As and when they become available, key performance evaluation results can also be added to the corresponding individual teacher record for future reference.

3.6.2 Content and presentation

teacher performance evaluation report (see example 6) presents the results of an evaluation of a teacher’s aptitude and actions in: (a) planning and organizing teaching-learning events; (b) using instructional techniques and strategies; (c) adhering to established curricular objectives; (d) creating a conducive learning environment; (e) implementing national and school policies, norms, rules and regulations; (f) teamwork with other teachers, school staff and substitutes; (g) keeping accurate and timely records and providing data when required; (h) communication with students, parents and local community members; (i) participating in supporting co-curricular, extra-curricular and other activities at school. A teacher’s performance for each of these attributes can be scored numerically to compare teacher performance by individual attributes and the total of all attributes.

3.6.3 Creation and use

each teacher’s performance should be evaluated at least once a year, towards the end of the school year. The evaluator(s) score each teacher’s performance according to each attribute, then record the scores in an evaluation report. in consultation with the teacher who has been evaluated, the school manager reviews, checks and validates the report, then stores it confidentially for use in managing the employment and career development of the teacher. The key findings of these reports are also summarized and reported to higher levels of the educational administration. individual teachers can learn about their strengths and weaknesses from the report and take action to improve their work and to plan their own career development.

3.6.4 Storage, access and retention

Teacher performance evaluation reports are kept confidentially at the school management office, with restricted access granted only to top school management staff and the corresponding teacher. Key results of the evaluation can be added to the relevant teacher record for reference. Once created and validated, such reports will not be modified. When a new evaluation takes place, the new report will be added to past reports as an update. When a teacher retires, resigns, leaves or transfers else- where, the corresponding evaluation report can be archived at the school. Only when it is learned that the teacher has died can the report be destroyed.

Activity 8

Carefully examine the teacher evaluation report in Example 6, review the instructions above, and then answer the following questions:
For school managers and staff:

  1. What kinds of records are used in your school to monitor teacher performance? discuss with other school managers about their practices and experience with these records, the advantages and disadvantages of evaluating teacher performance, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for the future.
  2. how closely does the teacher performance evaluation report in example 6 correspond to the needs and practices in your school? Which of its parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such a record?
  3. Aretheinstructionsfortheteacherperformanceevaluationreportinthissectionclearandhelpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should a teacher performance evaluation report look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch a teacher performance evaluation report and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. What kinds of records are used in the schools in your area to monitor teacher performance? discuss with school managers in your area about their practices and experience with these records, the advantages and disadvantages of evaluating teacher performance, and then list the lessons learnt and suggestions for the future.
  2. how closely does the teacher performance evaluation report in example 6 correspond to the needs and practices of the schools in your area? Which of its parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such a record?
  3. Are the instructions for the teacher performance evaluation report in this section clear and helpful? What can be improved to support your work in supervising and supporting the schools?
  4. how should a teacher performance evaluation report look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch a teacher performance evaluation report and discuss with your col- leagues and some experienced school managers in your area in order to refine it.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. To your knowledge, what kinds of records are used in the schools in your country or province to monitor teacher performance? Gather some samples and discuss with school managers and district education officers about their practices and experience with these records, the advantages and disadvantages of evaluating teacher performance, and then list the lessons learnt and suggestions for the future.
  2. how closely does the teacher performance evaluation report in example 6 correspond to the needs and practices of the schools in your province or country? Which of its parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What else should be included in such a record?
  3. Are the instructions for the teacher performance evaluation report in this section clear and helpful? What can be improved to support the work of district and local education officers in supervising and supporting the schools, and of school managers?
  4. how should a teacher performance evaluation report look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch a teacher performance evaluation report and discuss with your colleagues and some experienced school managers in order to refine it.)
  5. if you were to standardize and implement teacher performance evaluation reports in all schools, how would you go about doing it?

 

3.7 inventories of school facilities

3.7.1 Purpose

The main purposes of keeping and updating inventories of school facilities are: (a) to record the number of buildings, classrooms, furniture, equipment and other physical facilities; (b) to monitor the conditions of these facilities in order to determine maintenance work, repairs, replacements and new construction/acquisitions; (c) to assess the physical capacity of the school in relation to the number of students and the scale of school operations. if needed, such inventories can also include data on the frequency of use of specific facilities to ensure that they are being fully utilized.

3.7.2 Content and presentation

An inventory of physical facilities (see example 7 for buildings, classrooms, school grounds and other structures, and example 8 for furniture and equipment) contains summary tables of the quantity of different school facilities and information about their condition and use. if needed, the inventory can also record information about past repairs, replacements and new constructions or acquisitions. each country or local school can identify and define the most common types of school facilities, furniture and equipment, and adapt the tables accordingly. if deemed important, additional data about the material used for the building, roof and/or floor, lighting, ventilation and noise level may be recorded. in some schools, certain school facilities are not used either due to poor condition of the structure, or because there are inadequate numbers of students or teachers. it can be useful to know the degree to which vari- ous school facilities are over- or under-utilized, so actions can be taken to improve their rate of use.

3.7.3 Creation and use

Staff within the school management who are responsible for the acquisition, maintenance, repair and replacement of school facilities create and update these inventories. inventories of school facilities should be created when the school first opens, and be updated whenever changes occur such as new constructions or acquisitions, damages or destruction. Before the start of each school year, the school management must update these inventories in order to prepare enough capacity for handling the upcoming school activities, students and teachers. The updated inventories will inform decisions for maintenance work, repairs, replacements, new constructions or new acquisitions. These inventories can also help the school management to determine how to ensure these school facilities can be fully utilized during the new school year.

3.7.4 Storage, access and retention

inventories of school facilities are kept at the school management office. Access to the school inventory records should be restricted to school management staff only. construction plans and maintenance schedules must be systematically kept as evidence of new acquisitions, constructions and repairs, together with the invoices, purchase orders, receipts and other documents from the suppliers or constructors. All these documents should also be kept for accounting purposes. if possible, data and information about school facilities can be entered into computerized storage in the school database, to facilitate updates, search, retrieval and use for planning and commissioning maintenance, new acquisitions or construction work. inventories of school facilities are created and maintained continuously from one school year to another, as long as such facilities are available. Records of school facilities that are no longer available or used can be archived for future reference.

Activity 9

Carefully examine the instructions above and the sample inventories of school facilities, furni- ture and equipment in Examples 7 and 8. Compare these with existing inventories and records used in your school, district, province or country, and then answer the following questions:

For school managers and staff:

  1. What kind of inventories and records are used in your school to monitor school facilities, furniture and equipment? discuss with the relevant school staff about their practices and experiences
    as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these records, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improving them.
  2. how closely do the inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment in examples 7 and 8 correspond to the needs and practices in your school? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such inventories?
  3. Are the instructions in this section for the inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should such inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment look, taking into consideration your comments above?
    (Activity: Sketch inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment and discuss with your col- leagues in order to refine them.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. What kind of inventories and records are used in the schools in your area to monitor school facilities, furniture and equipment? discuss with school managers and relevant school staff in your area about their practices and experiences as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these records, and then list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improving them.
  2. how closely do the inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment in examples 7 and 8 correspond to the needs and practices of the schools in your area? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such inventories?
  3. Are the instructions in this section for the inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should such inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment and discuss with school managers and relevant school staff in your area in order to refine them.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. To your knowledge, what kind of inventories and records are used in the schools in your country or province to monitor school facilities, furniture and equipment? discuss with some experienced school managers and relevant school staff about their practices and experiences as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these records, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improving them.
  2. how closely do the inventories of school facilities, furniture and equipment in examples 7 and 8 correspond to the needs and practices in the schools in your province or country? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such inventories?
  3. Are the instructions in this section for the inventories of teaching/learning materials clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should the inventories of teaching/learning materials look, taking into consideration your comments above?
    (Activity: Sketch inventories of teaching/learning materials and discuss with some experienced school managers and school staff in order to refine them.)
  5. if you were to standardize and implement inventories of teaching and learning materials in all schools, how would you go about doing it?

3.8 inventory of

teaching/learning materials

3.8.1 Purpose

Teaching and learning materials are essential for supporting teaching-learning processes in school. Their availability, conditions and use determines the quality and outcomes of edu- cation. Schools that receive teaching and learning materials from central or provincial education authorities should keep inventories of these materials, and encourage teachers and students to access and use them throughout the school year. Such inventories will also enable the school to ensure that all students have the necessary learning materials including textbooks, and to replenish those teaching/learning materials that are, or will be, in short supply. Requests for teaching/learning materials from the schools that are based on up-to-date inventories will inform and help central and/or provincial education authorities to more reliably and efficiently plan their production and distribution.

3.8.2 Content and presentation

An inventory of teaching and learning materials (see example 9) consists of summary tables of the quantity of various materials available at the school, such as teaching aids; textbooks by grade and by subject; supplementary reading and learning materials; and sports, music, arts, and practical work equipment and materials. if appropriate, additional information about new acquisitions, distribution to students, frequency of use, damage and disposal can be included in the inventory. inventories of teaching materials and some shared learning materials may also record the number of times each material has been used per week or per month, so that utilization rates can be calculated to help in improving their use. each country must take prevailing practices in the country into account to determine which type of teaching and learning materials should be inventoried in school.

3.8.3 Creation and use

inventories of teaching/learning materials are created and maintained by school staff members who are responsible for managing the stock, distribution and use of such materials. Such inventories should be given a major update at the beginning of every school year to ensure that all the students and teachers have the necessary teaching and learning materials. Obsolete or irrelevant materials can be disposed of at the same time. during the school year, these inventories are continuously updated based on new acquisitions, distributions, damage and disposal. The school management uses the inventory to monitor the quantity, distribution and/or use of various teaching and learning materials so as to identify shortages and gaps. This allows the management to get new supplies, make new acquisitions, and to ensure that the materials are optimally distributed and used. School inspectors can be required to systematically verify these inventories during school visits.

3.8.4 Storage, access and retention

The inventories are kept at the school management office. Access should be restricted to school management staff, relevant teachers and inspectors. if possible, the data and information can also be entered into computerized storage in the school database to facilitate tracking, updates, search, retrieval and use. The inventory of teaching and learning materials should be continuously main- tained and updated for as long as the school is in operation.

Activity 10

Carefully examine the instructions above and the inventories of teaching and learning materials in Example 9. Compare it with existing inventories and records used in your school, district, province or country, and then answer the following questions:

For school managers and staff:

  1. What kind of inventories and records are used in your school to monitor teaching and learning materials? discuss with teachers and relevant school staff about their practices and experiences as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these inventories, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement.
  2. how closely do the inventories of teaching and learning materials in example 9 correspond to the needs and practices in your school? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such inventories?
  3. Are the instructions in this section for the inventories of teaching/learning materials clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should the inventories of teaching/learning materials look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch inventories of teaching/learning materials and discuss with your col- leagues in order to refine them.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. What kind of inventories and records are used in the schools in your area to monitor teaching and learning materials? discuss with experienced school managers, teachers and relevant school staff about their practices and experiences as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these inventories, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement.
  2. how closely do the inventories of teaching and learning materials in example 9 correspond to the needs and practices in the schools in your area? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such inventories?
  3. Are the instructions in this section for the inventories of teaching and learning materials clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should the inventories of teaching/learning materials look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch inventories of teaching/learning materials and discuss with experi- enced school managers and school staff in your area in order to refine them.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. To your knowledge, what kind of inventories and records are used in the schools in your country or province to monitor teaching and learning materials? discuss with experienced school managers, teachers and relevant school staff about their practices and experiences as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the inventories, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement.
  2. how closely do the inventories of teaching and learning materials in example 9 correspond to the needs and practices in the schools in your province or country? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be kept in such inventories?
  1. Are the instructions in this section for the inventories of teaching/learning materials clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  2. how should the inventories of teaching/learning materials look, taking into consideration your comments above? (Activity: Sketch inventories of teaching/learning materials and discuss with some experienced school managers and school staff in order to refine them.)
  3. if you were to standardize and implement inventories of teaching and learning materials in all schools, how would you go about doing it?

3.9 Financial summary

3.9.1 Purpose

Schools need financial resources to function. School finances should be carefully managed according to regulations. Financial records must be maintained and regularly updated for management, reporting and auditing purposes. Data about daily financial transactions are recorded in detailed school ledgers. Such school ledgers may however be too detailed to be use directly in monitoring and decision-making. Monthly, term and yearly financial summaries of school income and expendi- ture can be produced and used by the school management. Financial summaries are also used to report information about a school’s financial position to higher levels of the education administration, funding agencies, local government and community stakeholders that have made financial contribu- tions to the school and are entitled to know how their contributions have been used.

3.9.2 Content and presentation

Financial summaries provide information about the flow of a school’s financial resources, both into the school (income or revenue) and out of the school (expenditure). One side of such financial sum- maries shows the school’s revenue, categorized by source of funding. The other side records the school’s expenditure by type (see example 10). The balance between the revenue and expenditure informs about the state of finance and management of the school. each country may adapt the cat- egories of sources of income and type of expenditure according to national practice.

3.9.3 Creation and use

Whilst detailed school ledgers are kept and updated on a regular daily basis, the school accountant or the officer who is in charge of finance should prepare financial summaries on a monthly, term and/ or yearly basis, using the detailed data recorded in the school ledger. The school manager and the school management board use the financial summaries to monitor, verify and control the financial position of the school. These summaries can also be used to complete the corresponding school census form(s) and for periodic financial reporting to higher levels of the education administration. The summaries may also be incorporated into school reports to inform local stakeholders about the school’s financial position. during financial audits, financial summaries together with supporting documents such as the school ledger and receipts, invoices, bills and payment records are used by the auditor to examine the accounts and financial management at the school.

3.9.4 Storage, access and retention

Financial summaries and ledgers should be kept in the school management office together with all supporting documents such as receipts, invoices, bills and payment records. Access to financial records is restricted to the school manager, the school accountant or the school staff member who is in charge of finance, and to the financial auditor during school audits. Financial summaries can be produced on a periodic basis and made available to the school management board and higher levels of the education administration. All financial records are to be kept at the school for a minimum duration of 5 years, but some countries require financial records to be kept for a longer period of time.

Activity 11

Carefully examine the instruction above and the financial summary in Example 10. Compare it with existing financial records used in your school, district, province or country, and then answer the following questions:

For school manager and staff:

  1. What kind of records and summaries are used in your school to monitor the financial situation? discuss with the relevant school staff about their experiences and the advantages and disadvan- tages of these summaries, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improvements.
  2. how closely does the financial summary in example 10 correspond to the needs and practices in your school? Which of its parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be included?
  3. Are the instructions in this section for financial summary clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should the financial summary look, taking into consideration your comments above?(Activity: Sketch a financial summary and discuss with your colleagues in order to refine it.)

For district and local education officers and school inspectors:

  1. What kind of records and summaries are used in the schools in your area to monitor the financial situation? discuss with experienced school managers and school staff about their practices and experiences as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these summaries, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement.
  2. how closely does the financial summary in example 10 correspond to the needs and practices of the schools in your area? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other informa- tion should be included?
  3. Aretheinstructionsinthissectionforfinancialsummaryclearandhelpful?Whatcanbeimproved?
  4. how should the financial summary look, taking into consideration your comments above?(Activity: Sketch a financial summary and discuss with experienced school managers and school staff in order to refine it.)

For central and provincial education administrators:

  1. To your knowledge, what kind of records and summaries are used in the schools in your country or province to monitor the financial situation? discuss with some experienced school managers and school staff about their practices and experiences as well as the advantages and disadvan- tages of these summaries, and list the lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement.
  2. how closely does the financial summary in example 10 correspond to the needs and practices of the schools in your province or country? Which parts are relevant, and which are irrelevant? What other information should be included?
  3. Are the instructions in this section for financial summary clear and helpful? What can be improved?
  4. how should the financial summary look like taking into consideration your comments above?(Activity: Sketch a financial summary and discuss with some experienced school managers and schoolstaff in order to refine it.)
  5. if you were to standardize and implement financial summary in all schools, how would you go about doing it?

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