The learning achievement of students can be measured through examinations results. nowadays, specially calibrated test assessments are administered to samples of schools and students to test learning achievement. in this section, we focus on the use of examination results and outcomes. Readers who are interested in understanding more
about test assessments may refer to the PiSA (Programme for international Student Assessment) which is organized by the OECD (Organisation for economic Cooperation and development), TiMSS (Trends in international Mathematics and Science Study), or PIRLS (Progress in international Reading Literacy Study), etc.
10.1 examination results
Most schools organize tests and examinations at the end of each school term to assess individual student’s learning achievements. The results of these examinations are usually recorded in student performance summaries for each class and each term. Teachers and school managers use the summaries to review the overall performance of students in each class and to identify any problems or issues.
Besides copying the examination results into individual student record cards, the student performance summary is typically used to rank students according to the score they achieved for each subject in order to identify the high-performing students and students who did not perform well in some subjects or who have behavioural problems. Teachers and school managers can adopt special remedial actions to help students who need to improve their performance.
Average scores by subject may be calculated for each class, and each grade, so as to compare the performance of groups of students.
Review and discuss with other school managers, district and local education officers about how they use examination results to monitor learning achievements in school. Then, answer the following questions:
- How do you use examination results to monitor learning achievements in your school?
- What difficulties did you encounter while using examination results to monitor learning achievements in your school?
- What is the best way to use examination results to monitor learning achievement in school?
10.2 examination outcomes
Towards the end of the school year, after the results of the examinations have been summarized, teachers and school managers can evaluate the performance of students to determine whether they can be promoted to the next grade, or should repeat their current grade.
The expected repetition rate and promotion rate are indicators of the outcomes of examinations and students’ performance throughout the year. They are calculated by dividing respectively the number of students who will repeat the same grade or the number of students who will be promoted by the total number of students in the grade.
Completion rates are calculated by dividing the number of students who have performed satisfactorily in their final examinations, and are eligible to graduate from school, by the total number of students in the final grade(see figures marked with‘*’ in example 34). The completion rate can be used as an indicator to compare the performance between different classes in the top grade and between different schools, using data reported in school records and in response to the annual school census.
Review and discuss with other school managers, district and local education officers about the use of data from examination in school. Then, answer the following questions:
- How do you use examination outcomes to monitor the performance of classes, students and teach- ers in your school?
- What difficulties did you encounter while using examination outcomes to monitor the performance of classes, students and teachers in your school?
- How should one go about using examination results to monitor the performance of classes, students and teachers and education outcomes in school?
10.3 Student behaviour
Student performance summaries may contain scores to rate the behaviour of individual students. By sorting and ranking these students based on their behaviour scores, school managers can identify students who behave well and those who have behavioural problems, and calculate aver- age scores by class and by grade to compare overall behaviour of students between classes.
By identifying students with the best behaviour, the school can highlight good behavioural traits and encourage other students to follow them. The school can also adopt guidance and disciplinary measures to help students who misbehave to correct their behaviour.
School managers may use school records to note outstanding positive student behaviour as well as incidences of student misconduct. They can use the records to calculate the frequency of incidences of student misbehaviour in order to monitor the pattern of occurrences. Records of measures taken to recognize contributions from outstanding students and disciplinary actions for misdemeanours can also help the school to identify and adopt appropriate preventive and corrective actions.
It should be noted that the occurrence of outstanding positive behaviour among students often indicate successful learning outcomes in terms of critical thinking, problem solving, hands-on skills and creativity. demonstration of creativity as a learning outcome can also be gauged by the quantity and quality of writings, drawings, oral expressions, artistic expressions, and communications produced by the students.
Review and discuss with other school managers, district and local education officers about how they use data about student behaviour in school. Then, answer the following questions:
- How do you use data on student behaviour in your school?
- What were the difficulties you encountered while using data about student behaviour in your school?
- How should one go about using data about student behaviour in school?