Module A4: Use of Information in Monitoring, Planning and Management

6. Quality of education

Many factors influence the quality of education. These factors relate to the quality of teachers, school facilities, teaching/learning materials, management, examination, and the teaching/ learning processes used in the classroom.

6.1 Teacher qualifications and training

We can judge the quality of teachers using two indicators:

  1. The percentage of qualified or under-qualified teachers.
  2. The percentage of trained or untrained teachers.

The former refers to the highest level of education attained or highest academic certification received; the latter focuses on the kind of pedagogical training, either pre-service or in-service, that the teacher went through. ideally, all teachers must be qualified and have received pedagogical training.

Most countries have defined standard requirements and norms for the minimum qualification allowed for teachers at different levels of the education system and for different subjects. in practice, however, some schools may employ persons who do not meet such minimum requirements to teach, usually on a temporary or contractual basis. in some cases, schools may employ under-qualified or untrained teachers for a long period of time, without taking appropriate measures to upgrade their qualification or pedagogical training.

To achieve the EFA goal of quality basic education for all, one of the priorities is to assess the magnitude and characteristics of under-qualified and untrained teachers so that appropriate solutions can be adopted to raise the overall quality of all teachers to meet the minimum national standard and norms.

Information about teachers’ academic qualifications and training can be found in the teacher recordsat school, and in the central or provincial teachers database if that exists. The first step is to identify those teachers whose academic qualification falls below the national norms, and those teachers who have not participated in any pedagogical training. Their numbers are then tallied in order to calculate the percentages by dividing the respective numbers by the total number of teachers as shown in example 22.

We can see in example 22 that between14 per cent and 33 per cent of the teachers are under-qualified in the six schools in the dumjala district; between 14 per cent and 52 per cent are untrained. The dali Primary School has the most teachers (33), but it also has the highest percentage of under- qualified and untrained teachers. Priority should be given to upgrading this school’s teacher qualifications and training. When organizing in-service teacher training in this district, the under-qualified and untrained teachers from other schools can be invited to join.

At higher provincial and central levels of the education administration, similar summary tables can be made to list the percentage of under-qualified and untrained teachers for all schools under their respective jurisdictions (see example 22). By sorting the list of schools from the highest to the lowest in terms of percentage under-qualified and untrained, education administrators at each level can easily identify the schools that have the greatest need for improving the quality of teachers, and the scale of such need in terms of number of teachers to be targeted. This information can help administrators to plan and organize coordinated in-service pedagogical training and to upgrade the academic qualifications of teachers who perform well and have the potential for pursuing a career in teaching. This information can also help to identify priority areas for the improvement of pre-service teacher training, help plan new recruitment drives and redeploy qualified teachers to fill the gaps.

Activity 13

Review and discuss with other school managers, district and local education officers about their experiences in managing the quality of teachers, and then answer the following questions:

  1. How do you monitor and identify issues regarding the academic qualification and pedagogical training of teachers?
  2. How does your experience compare with that of other school managers?
  3. What is the best method for monitoring the qualification of teachers?

6.2 Teaching methods, skills and performance

Besides qualification and pedagogical training, the quality of a teacher can be determined by his/her attitude, diligence, methods and skills in organising and conducting teaching in the classroom as well as in supporting learning in various school activities.

The main source of such information about teacher performance is contained in the teacher evaluation report. Example 6 in Section 3.5 of Module A1 shows an example of a teacher evaluation report in which each teacher scores from 1 to 3 points for 20 performance attributes. in this example, a score of 1 indicates ‘UNSATISFACTORY’, 2 indicates ‘SATISFACTORY MOST Of THE TIME’ and 3 indicates ‘SATISFACTORY ALL Of THE TIME’. The data used to construct the table in example 23 was extracted from individual teacher evaluation reports. This table is a summary list of teachers with their scores for each of the 20 teacher performance attributes (see headings from Aa to Eg), and their total scores.

Example 23 sorts and ranks the teachers by their total scores in descending order, which are shown in the right-hand column. it shows that total scores range from a high of 45 to a low of 34. if the norm for satisfactory performance is 2, which means obtaining a total score of 40 for the 20 attributes, then example 23 shows that the first three teachers in the list performed above the norm, whereas the last three teachers performed below the norm.

The same approach may be applied to compare teacher performance by individual attribute. This summary list of teachers can also be sorted and ranked according to the teachers’ scores for each attribute, or for different combinations of attributes. if we assume that all the attributes have the same weight, average scores may be calculated for each attribute and used to compare teacher performance across all attributes. in practice, however, various attributes may also be assigned different weights when calculating the average score.

in comparing teachers’ performance, we must take into consideration the number of class hours each teacher works and other factors that might affect their performance. Then we can adopt appropriate measures to help the teachers improve their performance.

Activity 14

Review and discuss with other school managers, district and local education officers about their experience with evaluating teacher performance. Then, answer the following questions:

  1. How do you evaluate teacher performance in your school? How do you find the quality and reliability of the evaluation results?
  2. How does your experience compare with that of other school managers?
  3. What is the best way to manage teachers’ performance? How do you use the evaluation results?

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